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in vitro 培養システムによる食物繊維のヒト腸内細菌叢への影響評価

佐々木大介1,佐々木建吾1,近藤昭彦1,大澤 朗2,3,*

1神戸大学大学院科学技術イノベーション研究科
2神戸大学大学院農学研究科
3神戸大学大学院農学研究科食の安全・安心科学センター

Prebiotics are ingredients that are selectively fermented and that benefit the host by altering the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Prebiotics,including dietary fibers,remain undigested in the human stomach or small intestine and enter the colon,where they are fermented by the colonic microbiota. In recent years,it has been reported that the gastrointestinal microbiota closely interacts with the host intestinal epithelial cells,thereby playing an important role in maintaining the systemic homeostasis in the host. Furthermore,the system of “Foods with Function Claims” has been practiced in Japan since 2015,and with the increase in health consciousness,prebiotics are gaining immense attention. The safety and functional activity of prebiotics on host health have been generally assessed in human intervention or animal feeding tests; however,the cost of such studies and the associated ethical issues remain a concern. Therefore,an in vitro culture system that simulates the human gastrointestinal environment and/or microbiota has been developed. Although the structural changes in the microbiota have been previously recognized as a major factor,at present it is essential to detect the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the microbiota to understand the interaction between the colonic microbiota and host. In this review,we discuss the pioneering in vitro culture systems of human gastrointestinal microbiota,and especially shows the assessment study of dietary fibers using an in vitro culture model reflecting on the actual microbial diversity and SCFAs composition.
Keywords: in vitro culture system,human colon,microbiota,dietary fiber,SCFAs

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